It has been suggested that Estemmenosuchus was able to maintain a stable internal body temperature due to its large size and stocky, compact shape, despite not being warm-blooded.
It is believed its elaborate horns may have been used as a display to attract mates.
What Estemmenosuchus ate is still the subject of some debate. While its teeth seem to indicate a meat diet, its body shape and size suggest amore plant-based diet. It may have eaten both plants and animals, making it an omnivore.